Base de données des minéraux luminescents


Formule chimique: Ca5(PO4)3F

Famille: Phosphates, Arséniates, Vanadates

Statut: IMA-GP

Système cristallin : Hexagonal

Minéral de vitrine: OUI

Noms associés (variétés luminescentes, noms discrédités, synonymes etc.):  apatitemanganapatitesombrerite


Type d'UV Couleur principale (*) Intensité Fréquence d'observation
UV longs (365nm):      Jaune pâle Faible
UV moyens (320 nm):      Violet Moyenne
UV courts (254 nm):      Jaune-orange Forte
Autres couleurs OL:                                                                                          
Blanc , Blanc bleuté , Blanc jaunâtre (crème) , Blanc rosâtre , Jaune pâle , Jaune , Jaune-orange , Orange brunâtre , Brunatre , Rouge orange ("saumon") , Rose violacé , Rose saumon (rose orange) , Vert jaune , Vert , Verdâtre , Blanc verdâtre , Bleu violet , Jaunâtre ,
Autres couleurs OM:                                        
Blanc jaunâtre (crème) , Blanc rosâtre , Jaune pâle , Jaune , Jaune-orange , Rose violacé , Blanc verdâtre , Bleu violet ,
Autres couleurs OC:                                                                                     
Blanc bleuté , Blanc jaunâtre (crème) , Blanc rosâtre , Jaune pâle , Jaune , Jaune-orange , Orange , Orange brunâtre , Brunatre , Rose violacé , Jaune vert , Vert jaune , Vert , Verdâtre , Bleu , Blanc verdâtre , Jaunâtre ,

(*)Vous pouvez ouvrir la charte des couleurs dans une nouvelle fenêtre

Photo en lumière du jour

Col. G.Barmarin; Photo: G. Barmarin

Photo Ondes longues (365nm)

Col. G.Barmarin; Photo: G. Barmarin

Photo Ondes Courtes (254nm)

Col. G.Barmarin; Photo: G. Barmarin


Galerie de photos:


     Accès à la galerie complète (18 images au total)

Phosphorescence (au sens commun du terme) observable à l'oeil nu:

Pas de données

Thermoluminescence: OUI


Variété MANGANAPATITE: OL et OC: jaune, orange ; Activators: Eu2+, Ce3+, Mn2+, Dy3+, Nd3+, Sm3+ and Sm2+; TR3+ are located in the high symmetry Ca(I) position (Gorobets, Marfunin, Waychunas). Large pics: Mn2+ 569 nm, Mn3+ 583nm (yellow band); Other activator: U: 467, 486, 505, 526, 550 nm (gaft); Blue and violet luminescent colors due to Ce3+ and Eu2+; pink, violet pink, yellow pink: Sm3+, Dy3+; yellow band due to Mn2+ (Marfunin)

The luminescence spectrum of fluorapatite from Panasqueira, Portugal, is characterized by four emission bands 349 nm (bandwidth:,10 nm) (REE possibly Ce3+); 445 nm (40nm)(REE possibly Eu2+); 555 rm (100 nm)(Mn2+ + REE sensitization (co-activator/UV absorber) most probably Ce3+ and Eu2+); 701 nm (50 nm)(Unknown activator). (Source see link to article below)

The diversity of the luminescence in Apatite is created in part by:
- the ability of the apatite structure to incorporate transition metal, REE and anion impurity activators and co-activators, often in combination;
- the varying types of associations and formation conditions that promote luminescence activity; and
- the nature of the structure of the apatite host itself.

This favorable and flexible host structure has not been lost to commercial enterprises, as apatites have long been used as synthetic phosphors in industrial and consumer products. (Apatite Luminescence, Glenn A. Waychunas, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry; January 2002; v. 48)

Ninety-five percent of the phosphorus on Earth belongs to the minerals of the apatite group

Synthetic fluorapatite doped with manganese-II and antimony-V formed the basis for the second generation of fluorescent tube phosphors referred to as halophosphors (before 1942, synthetic Mn-doped willemite was used). When irradiated with 253.7 nm mercury resonance radiation they fluoresced with broad emission which appeared within the range of acceptable whites. The antimony-V acted as the primary activator and produced a broad blue emission. The addition of manganese-II produced a second broad peak to appear at the red end of the emission spectrum at the expense of the antimony peak, excitation energy being transferred from the antimony to the manganese by a non-radiative process and making the emitted light appear less blue and more pink. Replacement of some of the fluoride ions with chloride ions in the lattice caused a general shift of the emission bands to the longer wavelength red end of the spectrum. These alterations allowed phosphors for Warm White, White and Daylight tubes, (with corrected color temperatures of 2900, 4100 and 6500 K respectively), to be made. The amounts of the manganese and antimony activators vary between 0.05 and 0.5 mole percent. Sometimes some of the calcium was substituted with strontium giving narrower emission peaks.

Since about 1990 the third generation TriPhosphors, three separate red, blue and green phosphors activated with rare-earth ions and mixed in proportions to produce the desired color, have largely replaced halophosphors.


Activateur(s) et spectre(s):

Activateur le plus courant: Mn2+

Autres activateurs:            (UO2)2+ (ion Uranyle) en impureté,  Sm2+,  Eu2+,  Ce3+,  Sm3+,  Eu3+,  Dy3+,  Er3+,  Tb3+,  Pr3+,  Nd3+,  Gd3+,  Yb3+,  Yb2+,  Tm3+,  

Pics dans le spectre (nm):

Gd3+: 307,312nm
Tm3+: 364nm
Ce3+: 375-400
Tb3+: 383, 387, 389, 411, 415, 420, 436, 439, 443, 446nm (in Ca(I) position)
Tm3+: 452,703
Eu2+: 450-460 (in Ca(I) & Ca(II) position)

U: 467, 486, 505, 526, 550nm
Mn2+ (repl. Ca2+): 569nm (decaytime: 1,5ms)  (in Ca(I) & Ca(II) position &  adsorption on carbonate-fluor-apatite surface)

Mn3+: 583nm
Dy3+: narrow lines at 470, 475, 478, 481, 488,485, 570, 575, 580, 586, 579, 651, 656, 661, 664 nm (in Ca(I) position)
Sm3+: 560, 563, 565, 593, 595,599, 603, 604, 637, 639, 641, 646, 651, 695, 704, 710, 652 nm (in Ca(I) & Ca(II) position)
Ce3+: 543nm  (in Ca(I) & Ca(II) position) (decaytime: 20ns)
O2 in channels: 687, 762nm
H2O in channels: 719, 729, 817, 823, 829nm
MnO3-4 repl. PO3-4:, 1143, 1158nm
Eu3+: 573, 616, 631, 578, 608, 615, 627, 579, 590, 618, 653, 700nm (in Ca(I) position)
Sm2+: 689, 691, 695, 704, 708, 711, 716, 724, 726, 733, 736, 749,773, 774, 778, 798, 815nm
Nd3+: 862, 873, 880, 890, 893, 897,910, 1058, 1065, 1070nm (in Ca(I) position)
Yb3+: 993nm (Ca(II) position)
Pr3+:  (in Ca(I) position)
Er3+:  (in Ca(I) position)

Spectrum: Michael Gaft, Petah Tikva, Israel. Plot: Institute of Mineralogy, University of Vienna, Austria, with permission of the authors.


  Vers la galerie de spectres (44 spectres au total)

Commentaires sur les spectres et les activateurs (*):

The structure of the apatite is hexagonal, with the symmetry group P63/m.

There are two different sites for the Ca2+ in this structure: 40 % of Ca2+ ions are associated with the Ca(I) sites and 60 % are associated with Ca(II) sites.

The point group symmetry of the Ca(I) site is C3, with each Ca having six oxygen nearest neighbors that form a distorted triangular prism about the Ca2+ ion. The Ca(II) site has Cs symmetry with the Ca2+ ions sitting at the corners of equilateral triangles with an F ion in the center (see Gaft).

In nature, REE can easily substitute for Ca, becoming luminescence centers.

With steady-state luminescence spectroscopy, it was discovered that Eu2+, Ce3+, Mn2+, Dy3+, Nd3+, Sm3+ and Sm2+ mainly determine apatite luminescence. It was established that REE3+ have been detected only in the high symmetry Ca(I) position. (see Gaft)

(*)Les commentaires sur les spectres sont uniquement rédigés en Anglais

Meilleure(s) localité(s) pour la fluorescence (*):

(*)Les données ne sont pas exhaustives et sont limitées à quelques localités remarquables pour la fluorescence

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