Database of luminescent Minerals


Chemical Formula:See SPODUMENE

Familly: Silicates

Status: NON APPR

Crystal System: Monoclinic

Mineral for Display: Yes


UV Type Main color Intensity Observation Frequency
Long Waves (365nm):      Orange
Short Waves (254 nm):      Salmon pink
Other colors SW:     
Violet Pink ,

Daylight Picture

Darre Pech, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan
Photo and Copyright:
Used with permission of the author

Short Waves Pictures (254nm)

Darre Pech, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan
UVSW, Photo and Copyright:
Used with permission of the author


Phosphorescence (in the common meaning of the term) seen by naked eye:

UV Type Color Intensity Observation Frequency
Long Wave (365nm): Orange Medium
Short Waves (254 nm): Violet red Medium

Thermoluminescence: Yes

Main Activator(s) and spectrum:

Most Common Activator: Mn2+

Other activators:            Cr3+ , TiO6 ,

Peaks in the spectrum (nm):

Large band at 430 nm,

Mn2+ : large band peaking around 620 nm  (Gorobets)  

large band peaking at 605nm

Col. G. Barmarin; Spectre: G. Barmarin

Comments on activators and spectra:

The phosphorescence of Kunzite was discovered by G. F. Kunz himself in 1903. Baskerville also studyed Kunzite luminescence in 1903. Extended studies were later made on the spectra of Kunzite by Pochettino and by Nichols who found that the fluorescence emitted light was polarized. Nichols also describe the fluorescence emitted by electron excitation as two bands : a strong broad band  from 515nm to 690nm and a weak one extending from 420nm to 480nm. He also pointed that the band around 600nm have a strong phosphorescence and the other band have none. Nichols studied the thermoluminescence at 325°C and found that it was not polarized. The thermoluminescence ceased at 400°C.

At 20°C the peak around 590nm is nearly symetric being somewhat steeper toward the violet. On cooling to -180°C, the fluorescence color  becomes much redder to the eye but the spectrum show no resolution into narrow bands (DeMent 1949)

Tanaka (1921-1932) demonstrated that the most important activating agents wich cause the luminescence of Kunzite is Manganese. However, he stated that Samarium and Ytterbium had a role as activator. In the Kunzite from Pala, Ca, USA, containing a few tenths of a percent of manganese, he found in the bright orange light emitted by fluorescence 12 manganese bands,  4 samarium bands and one thallium band. 

Best Locality for luminescence(*):

(*)Data are not exhaustive and are limited to the most important localities for fluorescence

Bibliographical Reference for luminescence:

Luminescence Reference on internet:

Mineralogical Reference on internet:

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Note: While all due attention has been paid to the implementation of the database, it may contain errors and/or accidental omissions. By nature, the database will always be incomplete because science always evolves according to new analysis.
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