Database of luminescent Minerals


Chemical Formula:See SODALITE

Familly: Silicates

Status: NON APPR

Crystal System: Isometric

Mineral for Display: Yes


UV Type Main color Intensity Observation Frequency
Long Waves (365nm):      Orange StrongAlways
Mid waves (320 nm):      Orange
Short Waves (254 nm):      Orangy yellow MediumVery often
Other colors LW:          
Orangy yellow , Orange Red ,
Other colors MW:     
Orangy yellow ,
Other colors SW:                         
Bluish White , Yellowish White , Orangy yellow , Orange , Yellowish ,

Daylight Picture

Photo and Copyright: James Hamblen
Site of the author
Used with permission of the author

Long Waves Picture (365nm)

hackmanite under UVLW,
Photo and Copyright: James Hamblen
Site of the author
Used with permission of the author


Galerie de photos:


     To the gallery (22 images in the gallery)

Phosphorescence (in the common meaning of the term) seen by naked eye:

UV Type Color Intensity Observation Frequency
Long Wave (365nm): Bluish White Medium
Mid Waves (320 nm): Bluish White Very Strong
Short Waves (254 nm): Bluish White Very Strong

Ténébrescence: OUI

hackmanite, up after and down before exposition to SW (tenebrescence);
Koksha Valley, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan; ;
Col. G.Barmarin; Photo: G. Barmarin

Thermoluminescence: Yes


A sulfide rich sodalite and should not be regarded as a separate species.

Main Activator(s) and spectrum:

Most Common Activator: S2-

Peaks in the spectrum (nm):

S2-  : (566),(610), 625, 647, 664, (695), (723), (751nm)

Col. G. Barmarin; Spectre: G. Barmarin


  To the spectrum gallery (1 spectra in the gallery)

Comments on activators and spectra:

O. Ivan Lee investigated what he calls the reversible photosensitivity of hackmanite from Bancroft (Ontario) and his response to different UV sources as early as 1936. He presented the phenomenon for the 50th Anniversary Celebration Banquet of the New York Mineralogical Club, in November 18, 1936 at the American Museum of Natural History. It seems that it was the first observation and the first public announcement and publication (American Mineralogist vol 21) about photochromism (tenebrescence) in mineralogy.

Chemical analyses revealed that the mineral contains a certain amount of sulfur as a substitute for chlorine in the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra of hackmanite showed that the samples contain water. The stretching vibration peak of water of crystallization (H2O) occurs at 3438 cm-1 and the bending peak is at 1623 cm-1. Its tenebrescence is caused by hole color centers which are contributed to the presence of sulfur (S2-)) and to some negatively charged chlorine atoms being missing in the crystal structure of hackmanite. (source:

Crystals of Hackmanite of Koksha Valley in Afghanistan are usually found in a matrix constituted by non-fluorescing Winchite and/or marble.

Synthetic sodalites containing sulfur and showing considerable photochromic activity have been investigated by ESR. The center responsible for the color has been shown to be an electron trapped at a chlorine vacancy. The origin of the electron which is reversibly transferred during the processes of coloration and bleaching is believed to be the ion S2-). (see William G. Hodgson, Jacob S. Brinen, and Emil F. Williams, Electron Spin Resonance Investigation of Photochromic Sodalites, The Journal of Chemical Physics 47, 3719 , 1967)

Best Locality for luminescence(*):

(*)Data are not exhaustive and are limited to the most important localities for fluorescence

Bibliographical Reference for luminescence:

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Mineralogical Reference on internet:

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