Chemical Formula: CaTiSiO5
Crystal System: Monoclinic
Mineral for Display: No
Associated names (luminescent varieties, discredited names, synonymes etc.): sphene,
|Short Waves (254 nm): || Dark Orange /Tawn |
Phosphorescence (in the common meaning of the term) seen by naked eye:
Main Activator(s) and spectrum:
Most Common Activator: Radiation induced centers
Other activators: Cr3+ , Ti3+ , Sm3+ , Eu3+ , Nd3+ ,
Peaks in the spectrum (nm):
Sm3+ : 600nm
Eu 3+ : 620, 703nm
Ti3+? : 742
749 762 769 793 798 804 820nm
Spectrum: Michael Gaft, Petah Tikva, Israel. Plot: Institute of Mineralogy, University of Vienna, Austria, with permission of the authors.
To the spectrum gallery (2 spectra in the gallery)
Comments on activators and spectra:
Potential activators: TiO6, Ti3+, RRE2+, REE3+, Pb2+ and Mn2+ substituting to Ca2+, Cr3+ and Mn4+ substituting for Ti4+, Cr4+, Cr5+ and Fe3+ substituting for Si4+. U impurities can also create radiation induced luminescence centers.
Best Locality for luminescence(*):
- Franklin Marble, Rudeville, New Jersey, USA (weak brown SW);
- Capelinha, Minas Gerais, Brazil;
- Kola Peninsula, Russia (dim brown SW);
(*)Data are not exhaustive and are limited to the most important localities for fluorescence
Bibliographical Reference for luminescence:
- The Henkel Glossary of Fluorescent Minerals, Dr. Gerhard Henkel, Published by the FMS, 1989 ,
- Fluorescence: Gems and Minerals Under Ultraviolet Light, Manuel Robbins, 1994, Geoscience Press, ISBN 0-945005-13-X ,
- Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials, M. Gaft, R. Reisfeld, G. Panczer, Springer Editor, ISBN: 10 3-540-21918-8 ,
Luminescence Reference on internet:
Mineralogical Reference on internet:
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