Database of luminescent Minerals


Chemical Formula: LiAlSi2O6

Familly: Silicates


Crystal System: Monoclinic

Mineral for Display: Yes

Associated names (luminescent varieties, discredited names, synonymes etc.):  hiddenitekunzite


UV Type Main color Intensity Observation Frequency
Long Waves (365nm):      Orange Red
Short Waves (254 nm):      Orange
Other colors LW:                         
Orange , Tawn , Orange Red , Violet Pink , Salmon pink ,
Other colors SW:     
Blue ,

Long Waves Picture (365nm)

OL (365 nm). Col. G. Barmarin; Photo: G. Barmarin


Galerie de photos:


     To the gallery (7 images in the gallery)

Phosphorescence (in the common meaning of the term) seen by naked eye:

UV Type Color Intensity Observation Frequency
Long Wave (365nm): Orange
Mid Waves (320 nm): Orange
Short Waves (254 nm): Orange

Ténébrescence: OUI

Thermoluminescence: Yes


Variety triphane (colorless), Kunzite (pink) and Hiddenite (green).

Main Activator(s) and spectrum:

Most Common Activator: Mn2+

Other activators:            Cr3+ , Fe3+ ,

Peaks in the spectrum (nm):

Mn2+ substituting for Li : broad band around 595 - 615nm (10ms)

Cr3+ : 676, 690nm (peak)

Fe3+ : 685nm (5 ms)

Spectrum: Michael Gaft, Petah Tikva, Israel. Plot: Institute of Mineralogy, University of Vienna, Austria, with permission of the authors.

Comments on activators and spectra:

Mn2+ is shown to be mainly in Li-sites rather than Al-sites and gives rise to a broad emission centered at 600 nm. In Cr-rich crystals only one R1 line is observed and Cr3+ emission is evident at room temperature. In green hiddenite crystals, Cr3+ emission is dominant at room temperature where the R-lines are superimposed on a broad-band emission. (Source: Luminescence spectroscopy of Cr3+ and Mn2+ in spodumene (LiAlSi2O6), WALKER G. see below).


Spodumen is a monoclinic pyroxene with two not equivalent metal cation sites M1 and M2. The aluminum occupies the smaller M1 site, which is approximately octahedral (actual symmetry C2) with an average metal-oxygen distance of 1.92 A. The M2 site, occupied by Li, is also six-fold coordinated with an average metal-oxygen distance of 2.23 Å. Both Al and Li sites may be substitutionally replaced by ions of the transitional metals in various proportions.

Both Mn2+ and Cr3+ centers have been identified in luminescence spectra by steadystate spectroscopy (Tarashchan 1978; Walker et al. 1997).

Besides, long lived deep red luminescence was found supposedly generated by Fe3+ especially in the specimen fluorescing a bright lilac color under SW, light peach LW and having a violet (not pink) color in daylight.

At room and lower temperatures only one emission band of Mn2+ occurs. 

It is very probable that Mn2+ ions in the spodumen matrix is present only in one site and that Mn2+ is mainly in Li-sites rather than Al-sites. (Gaft)


Best Locality for luminescence(*):

(*)Data are not exhaustive and are limited to the most important localities for fluorescence

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